Cellulite (also known as adiposis edematosa, dermopanniculosis deformans, status protrusus cutis, gynoid lipodystrophy, and orange peel syndrome) is the herniation of subcutaneous fat within fibrous connective tissue that manifests topographically as skin dimpling and nodularity, often in the pelvic region (specifically the buttocks), lower limbs, and abdomen. Cellulite is a secondary sex characteristic occurring in most postpubescent females.
A review gives a prevalence of 85%-98% of women, Indicating that it is physiologic rather than pathologic. It can result from a complex combination of factors ranging from hormones to heredity.
The causes of cellulite include changes in metabolism, physiology, diet and exercise habits, sex-specific demographic skin architecture, alteration of connective tissue structure, hormonal factors, genetic factors, the microcirculatory system, the extracellular matrix, and subtle inflammatory alterations.
- Hormonal factors
Hormones play a dominant role in the formation of cellulite. Estrogen may be the important hormone in the development of cellulite. However, there has been no reliable clinical evidence to support such a claim. Other hormones, including insulin, the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline, thyroid hormones, and prolactin, are all believed to participate in the development of cellulite.
- Genetic factors
There is a genetic element in individual susceptibility to cellulite.Researchers led by Enzo Emanuele have traced the genetic component of cellulite to particular polymorphisms in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF1a) genes.
- Predisposing factors
Several factors have been shown to affect the development of cellulite. Sex, race, biotype, distribution of subcutaneous fat, and predisposition to lymphatic and circulatory insufficiency have all been shown to contribute to cellulite.
A high-stress lifestyle will cause an increase in the level of catecholamines, which have also been associated with the development of cellulite